AFRICA has been home to many empires in antiquity.
3000-2500BC was the period of the Old kingdom of Egypt and with little known of the land of Kush which was growing more southerly about the fifth cataract of the Nile.
1900B.C.-The new kingdom of Egypt grew with Nubia in it's shadow until 748B.C when the kings of this land of Punt or Kush ruled Egypt for about a 100 or 150 years, supplying the pharaohs of the 25th dynasty.
The capital was in Meroe present day Sudan. Hence the black pharaohs.
Also 200-300 A.D. Kush rose over Egypt.
1000BC-Saba grew in the North East where Ethiopia, Eritrea and Yemen are today. The Queen of Saba or the queen of Sheba is said to have visited Solomon. According to the Kabra Nagast, Sheba's son Menelik was fathered by Solomon. Aksum grew in place of Saba, while Kush declined until about 1200A.D. All these kingdoms were trading aound the Nile and the Red sea with Assyrians, Persians, Romans, and Arabs at one period or another.
In the West of Africa, (The Western Sudan also known as Bilad-as Sudan- the land of black people) from about the first century, the Soninke settlements began to grow into a principality and then a kingdom, This kingdom was called Wagadu, but the Arabs erroneously called it Ghana after one of the titles of its kings.
I will write labout Wagadu of which much is known.